Things You Need to Know About Home Network

Network has become an indispensable part of our daily life. If you have a computer at home, I’m sure that you are not unfamiliar with home network. In the past, there was only one way for home network deployment—wired network. However, the pace of network technology development has never slowed down, and now, there is wireless network, which makes it more convenient to get access to the network. As we are in wired network or wireless network environment every day, it is necessary for us to know something about network, especially home network. This article will introduce some basic knowledge about wired network and wireless network.

home network
Wired Network

In wired network, there are two important devices, one is router and the other one is network cable.


We know that router is designed with several physical ports on the front or back of the unit, such as one WAN (wide area network) port, four LAN (local area network) ports and one power input port. Also, there are some LED lights to display device status. All WAN port and LAN ports are RJ45 interface, so one end of network cable can be plugged into them. But for the other end of network cable, there is one difference between WAN port and LAN port. For WAN port, the other end of network cable is plugged into an Internet source, such as broadband service provider; while for LAN port, the other end of network cable is plugged into the RJ45 port on Ethernet-ready device, like computer. The moment you plug a device into a router, you have yourself a wired network.

Network Cable

As for the selection of network cable used for the connection, either cat5e cable or cat6 cable will be OK. The latest network cabling standard currently in use is cat6 cable, which is designed to be faster and more reliable than cat5e cable. Both of them support data speed at 10Mb/s, 100Mb/s and 1000Mb/s, while cat6 cable is able to achieve 10Gb/s. Also, cat5e cable and cat6 cable can be used interchangeably, For most home usage, what cat5 cable has to offer is more than enough. But if you think about future-proof, cat6 cable is a great option in addition to its high price.

Wireless Network

For wireless network, devices don’t use network cable to connect to the router. Instead, they use radio wireless connections called Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity). This is one big difference between wireless network and wired network. The devices used in wireless network don’t need to have ports, just antennas, which are sometimes hidden inside the device itself. In order to build Wi-Fi environment, an access point (AP) is required.

Access Point

An access point is a central device that broadcasts a Wi-Fi signal for Wi-Fi clients to connect to. Generally, each wireless network belongs to one access point. For example, when you hang around some stores, you can see different networks popping up on your phone’s screen and each of them belongs to one access point. For home wireless network deployment, you can buy an access point separately and connect it to a router. Now on the market, a kind of wireless router is available, which is a regular router with a built-in access point. This makes your wireless network building more convenient.


In a typical home network, there are generally both wired and wireless devices, and they can all talk to one another. To build a stable home network, it is important to choose quality router, network cable and access point. Though FS.COM does not provide router, you can find high quality network cable and wireless access point. For more details, please visit our site.

Applications of FHX Ultra MTP/MPO Cassettes

Nowadays, data communication technology has developed rapidly. To achieve high speed transmission, it is very common to see complex cabling system in data center, which may even include thousands of fibers. Under such circumstances, saving space in data center is a critical issue. Therefore, fiber optic components or cabling solutions which are characterized by high density will gain the popularity among data center managers. MTP component is such one that can satisfy the requirement. And this article is going to introduce FHX ultra MTP/MPO cassettes and their applications in data center.

Overview of FHX Ultra MTP/MPO Cassettes

MTP/MPO cassette is widely used for high-density cabling in data centers. It is pre-terminated and pre-tested enclosed unit which can provide secure transition between MTP and LC, SC or MTP discrete connectors. And it is usually structured with LC, SC or MTP adapters on the front side of the cassette and MTP adapters at the rear of the cassette. FHX Ultra MTP/MPO cassette has three types: FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette, FHX 12F MTP-LC cassette and FHX MTP conversion module. Here is a figure for you to have a better understanding of these three types of MTP cassettes.

FHX Ultra MTP MPO Cassettes
Applications of FHX Ultra MTP/MPO Cassettes

For application, MTP cassette can be easily found in 10G, 40G and 100G network applications in data center.

FHX Ultra 8F MTP-LC Cassette

Since both FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette and FHX 12F MTP-LC cassette serve to realize the transition from small diameter ribbon cables terminated with MTP connector(s) to the more common LC interfaces used on the transceiver terminal equipment, this part will take FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette as an example. The FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette is structured with four LC duplex (8-fiber) adapters on the front side of the cassette and one 12-fiber MTP adapter at the rear of the cassette, and it is often used for 10G to 40G connection. As the following figure shows, we can also add FHX ultra enclosure and FHX MTP adapter panel to the cabling solution. From the left to the right, four 10G SFP+ transceivers are plugged into four 10G ports on the 10G switch. Then they are connected to LC adapters on the FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette through four LC duplex patch cables. The cassette is installed in the FHX ultra enclosure. One MTP trunk cable connects two MTP adapters respectively on the rear of the cassette and MTP adapter panel. Finally, the 40G QSFP+ transceiver on the 40G switch is connected with MTP adapter on MTP adapter panel through another MTP trunk cable. In this application, 100% fiber utilization is realized. What’s more, the 1U fiber enclosure can house 18 x 8F FHX cassettes or 12 x 12F FHX cassettes, with the total fiber capacity up to 144 fibers for LC interface, greatly saving cabling density.

application of FHX ultra 8F MTP-LC cassette
FHX MTP Conversion Module

The FHX MTP conversion module has several kinds, this part will take 3x MTP-8 to 2x MTP-12 (24-fiber) conversion module as an example. This kind of FHX MTP conversion module is structured with three 8-fiber MTP adapters on the front side of the module and two 12-fiber MTP adapters at the rear of the module. We can use FHX ultra enclosure to hold MTP conversion module. The following figure shows the cabling solution for 120G to 120G connection. Three 40G QSFP+ transceivers are respectively plugged into 40G ports on three 40G switches on both sides. Then the three 40G QSFP+ transceivers are connected with three 8-fiber MTP adapters on the front side of the module through three MTP trunk cables. Finally, two 12-fiber MTP adapters at the rear of two respectively modules are connected through two MTP trunk cables. This cabling solution utilize Based-8 MTP cabling system and achieves 100% fiber utilization. With the use of 1U FHX ultra enclosure, twelve 3x MTP-8 to 2x MTP-12 conversion module can be used in this cabling solution, which creates a 33% spacing-saving upgrading path.

application of FHX MTP conversion module

The FHX ultra MTP/MPO cassettes can not only meet the need for saving space in data center cabling, but also realize 100% fiber utilization during the cabling. With superior best-in-class features, FS.COM FHX ultra MTP/MPO cassettes can offer you cost-effective, simple 10G to 40G, 40G to 40G, 40G to 100G or 120G to 120G cabling solutions and ensures high performance at the same time. For more details, please visit our site.

A Closer Look at OM5

We know that for short-reach optical interconnects, multimode fiber is a cost-effective solution. As data centers are constantly moving towards faster speeds and higher densities, the multimode fiber also has evolved over time, from OM1, OM2 to OM3 and OM4 multimode fiber. Now, OM5 is coming. This article will guide you to have a closer look at OM5.

Overview of OM5

OM5, also known as wide-band multimode fiber (WBMMF), is recognized within both the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. It is designed to support shortwave wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM) which would use 850nm, 880nm, 910nm and 940nm for transferring signals.


Characteristics of OM5

What makes OM5 different? What are characteristics of OM5? The following part will make a summary.

Size: OM5 fiber is laser optimized multimode fiber (LOMF) of 50 micron core. Therefore, OM5 cabling supports all legacy applications at least as well as OM4, and is fully compatible and intermateable with OM3 and OM4 cabling.

Color: TIA has specified lime green as the official cable jacket color for OM5.

Bandwidth: The operating band of OM5 is from 850 to 953nm and its effective modal bandwidth is specified at the lower and upper wavelengths: 4700 at 850nm and 2470 at 953nm.

Speed: OM5 can support 40G, 100G and 400G Ethernet by accommodating SWDM. And it is designed and specified to support at least four WDM channels at a minimum speed of 28Gbps per channel through the 850-953 window.

Distance: When transferring signals at the speed of 10 Gb/s, OM5 can achieve 550 meters; when transferring signals at the speed of 40 Gb/s, OM5 can achieve 440 meters; when transferring signals at the speed of 100 Gb/s, OM5 can achieve 150 meters.

Working principle: Since SWDM will enable 40G and 100G over few fiber strands, when using 25GBASE-SR specifications, 100 gigabit OM5 fiber links could be created using 2-fiber 25 gigabit channels on 4 different wavelengths. Similarly, using 100GBASE-SR4 specifications, 400 gigabit OM5 fiber links could be created using 8-fiber 100 gigabit channels on 4 different wavelengths.

Cost: As the matter of fact, OM5 cabling will costs about 50% more than OM4.

Comparison Among OM5, OM4 And OM3

By comparison, it is not difficult to find that there are many differences between OM5, OM4 and OM3.

  • OM5 carries at least 4X more capacity than OM4 over a meter of fiber and carries 5.7X more capacity than OM3 over a meter of fiber.
  • The color of OM5 fiber is lime green, while standard OM3 and OM4 fiber is aqua.
  • The effective modal bandwidth for OM5 is 4700 at 850nm and 2470 at 953nm. While OM4 is 4700 at 850nm and OM3 is 2000 at 850nm.
  • For 100 transmission speed, OM5 uses 2-fiber 25 gigabit channels on 4 different wavelengths, while OM4 and OM3 requires the use of 8-fibers via 100GBASE-SR4.
  • OM5 supports transmission distance of 440 meters for 40G SWDM system and 150 meters for 100G SWDM system. While OM4 can only achieve 350 meters for 40G SWDM system and 100 meters for 100G SWDM system; OM3 can support 40G SWDM system with distance of 240 meters and 100G SWDM system with 75 meters.


As a new type of multimode fiber, OM5 fiber does have a breakthrough in some aspects. However, it is not very popular on the market. Maybe because its strength is not prominent. Therefore, for OM5, it still has a long way to go. For 40G/100G network deployment, FS.COM will will keep you upgraded with the latest development of wide band multimode fibers. For more about our 25G/40G/100G optical solutions, please directly visit our website.

How Much Do You Know About 100G DWDM Transceiver?

The pace of the development of network technology has never stopped, from Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet, 10G Ethernet, 40G Ethernet and 100G Ethernet. To keep up with the pace, many data centers has deployed 100G network. We know that there are many types of 100G transceivers, such as 100G CFP/CFP2/CFP4, CXP and 100G QSFP28. Recently, new 100G DWDM technology has been the choice for 100G network applications over long distance. There are two types of 100G DWDM transceivers—Coherent 100G DWDM transceiver and PAM-4 (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) 100G DWDM transceiver. How much do you know about them? This article is going to give an introduction to 100G DWDM transceiver.

Coherent 100G DWDM Transceiver

Coherent 100G DWDM transceiver refers to coherent CFP transceiver. DWDM CFP transceivers can achieve long-distance data transmission in applications, when previously only SR4/LR4 options were available. It is an important feature enhancement to provide DWDM connectivity in a CFP transceiver for transporting 100G traffic over long distances. What’s more, coherent DWDM transceivers cost less than ER4 and ZR4 CFP transceivers. Now on the market, there are two types: CFP DCO (Digital Coherent Optic) and CFP2 ACO (Analog Coherent Optic).

CFP DCO has a high speed DSP (digital signal processing) chip built in which makes the coherent CFP a real workhorse. The DSP provides the electronic dispersion compensation and this eliminates the need of separate DCMs (dispersion compensation modules) of CFP. As a result, coherent CFP is able to support transmission distance of more than 1000km between sites.

The available CFP2 coherent DWDM transceivers are analog. Judging from the size, CFP2 ACO is half the width of CFP. Apart from this, another difference between CFP2 ACO and CFP is that CFP2 ACO does not has a DSP. In order to take the full advantages of the coherent features, CFP2 ACO requires a separate DSP on the host board. Though the DSP increases the power consumption and cost, it means that there is no need to add DSPs to the board.

PAM-4 100G DWDM Transceiver

PAM-4, adopted by the IEEE, is expected to be the most cost-effective and efficient enabler of 100G and beyond in the data center. PAM-4 makes more efficient use of electronic and optical components by packing two bits for every symbol sent over the fiber. Single-lambda 100G PAM-4 offers the simplest architecture, lowest component count, the most streamlined data path, higher reliability and an easy upgrade path to 400G Ethernet and beyond. And it enables the lowest-cost 100G transceiver. The 100G DWDM transceiver utilizes PAM-4 solution in QSFP28 form factor. For those who want to build an embedded DWDM network, they can use this transceiver directly in the switch. It is a very simple and cost-effective solution, but there is one tradeoff: it needs amplification to get out of the blocks and dispersion compensation to go beyond 5-6km. As a result, a separate DWDM multiplexer with an amplification system and dispersion compensation is required to connect data canters together. In addition, there is one thing to note: before the QSFP28 PAM-4 transceiver is added to an existing DWDM network, the network must prepare right DCM (dispersion compensation module) and amplification system in place.


Utilizing DWDM technology in the transceiver offers a simple and cost-effective solution. For coherent 100G DWDM transceiver, it is suitable for applications which needs longer reach; while for PAM-4 100G DWDM transceiver, it meets the needs of data center operators, such as Microsoft, that intend to turn up 4Tb/s of transmission capacity in a point-to-point fashion between data centers in a 70km metro-distributed network. Which one to choose depends on the specific deployment requirements.

Introduction to Cisco Nexus 3232C Switch

It is undeniable that switch is the heart of the telecommunication network. Now is the time for 100G Ethernet network and 100G switch is widely deployed in data center. Cisco Unified Fabric family is able to get high-density, advanced programmability, low latency, workload isolation, and wire-rate layer 2 and 3 switching on a data-center-class, Cisco NX-OS operating system. This article is going to introduce one kind of this series—Cisco Nexus 3232C switch.

Overview of Cisco Nexus 3232C Switch

The Cisco Nexus 3232C switch is a 1U fixed form-factor 100G switch with 32 qsfp28 ports. Each QSFP28 port can operate at 10, 25, 40, 50, and 100Gbps, up to a maximum of 128 x 25Gbps ports. It runs the industry leading Cisco NX-OS Software operating system which provides customers with comprehensive features and functions that are widely deployed. In addition, the QSFP28 transceiver, AOC cable and DAC cable can work on its QSFP28 ports. Here is a figure of Cisco Nexus 3232C switch for you.

Cisco Nexus 3232C switch
Advantages of Cisco Nexus 3232C Switch

There are many advantages of Cisco Nexus 3232C switch which will be introduced in this part.

High-density ports: It structured with 32 qsfp28 ports. Each QSFP28 port can be configured to work as 4 x 25Gbps ports, offering deployment flexibility, with up to a maximum of 128 x 25Gbps ports.

Flexibility: The switch can be used for fiber-based network deployment and copper-based network deployment. Both fiber and copper cabling solutions are available for 10G, 25G, 40G, 50G and 100G connectivity, including AOC cable and DAC cable.

High performance and scalability: With a four-core CPU, 8GB of DRAM and 16Mb of dynamic buffer allocation, the switch is suitable for massively scalable data centers and big data applications.

Comprehensive programmability: It enables data center managers to run today’s applications while also preparing them for demanding and changing application needs such as big data, cloud and virtualization.

Applications of Cisco Nexus 3232C Switch

This part will introduce two 100G to 100G cabling solutions for Cisco Nexus 3232C switch to you.

Direct Connection for 100G to 100G

As the following figure shows, two 100G QSFP28 transceivers are plugged into QSFP28 ports on Cisco Nexus 3232C switch set on two sides. The two 100G QSFP28 transceivers are designed with 12-fiber MTP connector interface. Therefore, they can be directly connected by 12-fiber MTP trunk cable. This is the simplest way to achieve 100G to 100G connectivity.

direct connection for 100G to 100G
Interconnection for 100G to 100G

We can also deploy fiber enclosure to get higher density and make the cabling procedure more flexible. Since 1RU rack mount fiber enclosure is able to hold up to 4 MTP fiber adapter panels or 4 HD 12 core MTP MPO fiber optic plug-n-play cassettes, here we take MTP fiber adapter panel for example. From the figure below we can see that, the two 100G QSFP28 transceivers are plugged into QSFP28 ports on Cisco Nexus 3232C switch on two sides. The the 100G QSFP28 transceiver is connected to the MTP adaptor on MTP fiber adapter panel by 12-fiber MTP trunk cable. Then the two MTP fiber adapter panels installed inside two fiber enclosures respectively are connected by 12-fiber MTP trunk cable.

interconnection for 100G to 100G

As a compact 1RU form factor switch for top-of-rack (ToR) data center deployments, Cisco Nexus 3232C switch allows a smooth transition from 40 to 100G Ethernet infrastructure in data centers. It is a high quality 100G switch. I hope after reading this article, you can have a better understanding of Cisco Nexus 3232C switch.

Introduction to Server Power Cord

The power cord is an indispensable unit to support the work of power supply. Connecting the servers and PDU (power distribution unit), server power cord plays an important role in ensuring good electricity supply. However, the standard for the connector type and voltage level of power cord are different in different countries. To make the network system work with high performance level, it is necessary to choose a suitable power cord. This article will give an introduction to server power cord to help you make the choice.

Overview of Power Cord

Although there are many different types of power cords used around the word, the structures of them are similar. In general, power cord consists of three parts: plug, cord and receptacle. The IEC60320 power cord and NEMA power cord are the most commonly seen types. The former one is commonly seen in US, while the latter one is widely used in North America and other countries that use the standards set by the NEMA. The following figure shows c13 to c14 power cord, nema 5 15p to c13 power cord, c14 to c15 power cord and nema 5 15p to c15 power cord, which are the most popular one power cable manufacturers like Dell, HP and IBM.

power cord
Applications in Different Cabling System
Low Density System

For low density system, it is very easy to install the power cord. The server needs to use a country-specific power cord for direct connection to a facility AC feed. However, server availability goals can require providing redundant AC power to the server in the form of a redundant AC bus or a UPS. As the following figure shows, server in figure A uses c13 to c14 power cord, and server in figure B uses nema 5 15p to c13 power cord.

power cord in low density system
Medium Density System

For medium density system, the installation of power cord is a little complex than that of low density system. To achieve an effective power connection, different types and other accessories are may be needed. As the following figure shows, power connections are achieved using modular PDH, extension bars and c13 to c14 power cord assemblies. For server which contains hot-pluggable fans accessible by sliding the chassis out on rails, the power cord connecting to the server must have adequate length and slack to allow chassis movement while staying connected and powered up.

power cord in medium density system
High Density System

For high density system, the length of power cord can be short since cable movement is less frequent. The following figure shows three kinds of methods to connect enclosures to AC power. The first one in the upper area shows that the c13 to c14 power cord is used to connect a single-supply server to a vertical mount PDU, which is suitable for lower-density installations. The second one in the central area shows the use of C13 x4-to-C20 fixed cord extension bars, which is a recommended method for extreme-density installations using redundant power supplies. The last one shows the use of a C13 x2-to-C20 Y-cable assembly, which is recommended for connecting a server with dual 1200-watt power supplies directly to a PDU core with C19 outlets.

power cord in high density system

Power cord serves as an important bridge in the network device power supply system. I hope after reading this article, you can have a better understanding of server power cord. FS.COM offers different types of IEC power cords, NEMA power cords, and jumper cords for server rack equipment with different colors and different lengths. If you want to know more details, please visit our website.

Deploy 40G/100G in Your Data Center

Due to the massive amount of storage is needed for high bandwidth, the demand for higher capacity of network deployment is rapidly increasing. Obviously, the conservative 2-fiber transmission is not enough to satisfied the need. And 12 or 24-fiber 40/100G Ethernet migration is quickly becoming a hot spot. This article will provide some cabling solutions for 40G/100G cost-effective and simplified migration path in data center.

10G to 40G

Take parallel optical transceiver 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ for example, it is structured with 12-fiber MTP connector, so it is used with 12-fiber MTP cable (only eight fibers are used, four for transmit and four for receive). The following figure shows the simplest way for migration from 10G to 40G. We can utilize 40G MTP/MPO breakout cable which has an MTP/MPO connector on one end and four duplex LC connectors on the other end. The MTP/MPO connector end is plugged into the MTP/MPO connector interface of 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ transceiver, while the other end is connected with four 10G SFP+ transceivers.

10G to 40G
10G to 100G

As for migration from 10G to 100G, we can utilize 100GBASE-SR10 CFP transceiver and 100G MTP/MPO breakout cable. The 100GBASE-SR10 CFP transceiver is structured with 24-fiber MTP/MPO connector interface. When using with MTP/MPO 24 fiber cable, the 100GBASE-SR10 transceiver only uses twenty fibers, ten for transmit and ten for receive. The following shows that one 100GBASE-SR10 CFP transceiver and ten 10G SFP+ transceivers are connected by MTP breakout cable which has 24-fiber MTP/MPO connector on one end and ten duplex LC connectors on the other end. This is the simplest cabling solution for 10G to 100G connectivity.

10G to 100G
40G to 40G

For 40G to 40G connectivity, we can use 12-fiber MTP trunk cable and MTP/MPO adapter panel to connect two 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ transceivers. We know that when deploying MTP link, we have to take polarity into consideration. Here are two cabling solutions for you. The first one uses Type A and Type B MTP trunk cable; the second one only uses Type B MTP trunk cable.

40G to 40G
100G to 100G

For 100G to 100G connectivity, here are three cabling solutions. The first one uses two 24fiber MTP-LC fanout cables, two 12-fiber MTP trunk cables and two MTP adapter panels; the second one uses three 24-fiber MTP trunk cables and two MTP adapter panel; the third one uses two duplex LC patch cables, two MTP cassettes and one 24-fiber MTP trunk cable. However, the third cabling solution does not use 100GBASE-SR10 CFP transceiver. It deploys ten 10G SFP+ transceivers on both sides to achieve 100G to 100G data transmission.

100G to 100G

With the rapid development for data communication, the migration from 10G to 40G or 100G is inevitable. Then how to deploy 40G or 100G in data enter becomes the primary concern. All the transceivers and cabling assemblies presented in 40/100G connectivity solution are available in FS.COM. For more details, please visit our site or contact us via