Are You Ready For 400G Ethernet?

The rapid development in telecom industry is driving massive demand for higher bandwidth and faster data rate, from 10G to 40G and 100G, will this keep going on? The answer is definitely “Yes”. Some time ago, migration from 10G to 40G or 25G to 100G has been a hot spot among data center managers. While recently, 400G solutions and 400G components are coming. Are you ready for 400G? This article will share some information about 400G Ethernet.

Overview of 400G

In the past couple of years, modules with four 25/28G lanes or wavelengths are the solutions for 100G Ethernet. However, they were expensive at the beginning. Until 2016, the optical components industry has responded to the demands with 100G solutions that already cost less per gigabit than equivalent 10G and 40G solutions, and new developments to further drive down cost and increase bandwidths. The next generation is 400G Ethernet. The IEEE has agreed on PSM4 with four parallel fibers for the 500 meters 400GBASE-DR4 specification that is part of the IEEE802.3bs standard being developed for approval by the end of 2017. The industry is already developing optical components for 400G Ethernet solutions. The following figure shows telecom and datacom adoption timelines.

Telecom and datacom adoption timelines

We can visually see that telecom/enterprise applications first adopted 100G technology in the form of CFP modules. Data centers generally did not adopt 100G interfaces until the technology matured and evolved towards denser, lower power interfaces, particularly in the form of QSFP28 modules. However, as the hyperscale data center market scales to keep pace with machine-to-machine communications needs, data center operators have become the first to demand transmission modules for data rates of 400G and beyond. Therefore, the 400G era is now upon us.

Modules for 400G

We know that the QSFP28 modules for 100G Ethernet and SFP28 modules for 25G Ethernet are now the dominant form factors. Though CFP, CFP2 and CFP4 modules remain important for some applications, they have been eclipsed by QSFP28 modules. To support higher bandwidth, what is the right module for 400G? The first CFP8 modules are already available. QSFP-DD is backward compatible with QSFP, and OSFP may deliver better performance, especially as networks move to 800G interfaces.

CFP8 module: CFP8 module is the newest form factor under development by members of the CFP multisource agreement (MSA). It is approximately the size of CFP2 module. As for bandwidth density, it respectively supports eight times and four times the bandwidth density of CFP and CFP2 module. The interface of CFP8 module has been generally specified to allow for 16 x 25 Gb/s and 8 x 50 Gb/s mode.

100G CFP to 400G CFP8

QSFP-DD module: QSFP-DD refers to Quad Small Form Factor Pluggable Double Density. It uses eight 25G lanes via NRZ modulation or eight 50G lanes via PAM4 modulation, which can support optical link of 200 Gbps or 400 Gbps aggregate. In addition, QSFP-DD module can enable up to 14.4 Tbps aggregate bandwidth in a single switch slot. As it is backwards compatible with QSFP modules, QSFP-DD provides flexibility for end users and system designers.

QSFP-DD vs QSFP

OSFP module: OSFP (Octal Small Form Factor Pluggable) with eight high speed electrical lanes is able to support 400G (8x50G). It is slightly wider and deeper than the QSFP but it still supports 36 OSFP ports per 1U front panel, enabling 14.4 Tbps per 1U. The OSFP is able to meet the projected thermal requirements for 800 Gbps optics when those systems and optics become available in the future.

OSFP module

Conclusion

Judging from the current trends, 400G will become the mainstream in the near future. But there are still some challenges for it to overcome, such as high capacity density, low power consumption, ever lower cost per bit, and reliable large-scale manufacturing capabilities. You never know what surprise the network will bring to you, let’s wait and see the 400G’s time.

Originally published at: http://www.fiber-optical-networking.com/are-you-ready-for-400g-ethernet.html

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Focus On FTTH Cabling Solution

Fiber optic cable has been widely used in telecom industry for its fast transmission speed. As people’s demand for bandwidth is increasing, optical fiber cable is not only used in enterprise network, but also applied to home network deployment. And FTTH (Fiber to the home) project is a typical example. This article will focus on FTTH cabling solution.

Overview of FTTH

FTTH refers to the installation and use of fiber optic cable all the way to individual buildings such as single family units (SFUs), multidwelling units (MDUs), providing high-speed broadband service. Take FTTH project in residential area for example, usually, the broadband service provider will set a distribution point near or inside a building. And fiber optic cables are deployed in this building to connect every required house to this fiber distribution point, thus providing broadband services to end users.

FTTH cabling solution

Advantages of FTTH

FTTH is an idea cabling solution for home network users who need high and reliable bandwidth for some applications, such as video chats and online conversation. In addition to this, is there any other advantage of FTTH?

  • FTTH is a passive network project which needs no active components, thus the cost of network installation and maintenance is not very high.
  • Fiber optic cable is light, so the installation process does not need much labor..
  • Fiber optic cable has high stability, and it will not be easily corroded by lightning or rain, or cause leakage.
  • Fiber optic cable can provide unlimited bandwidth. The development of technology leads to further expansion of people’s demand for bandwidth. For Ethernet cable, different categories have their own data rate limits and transmission distance limits. But for optical fiber cable, the bandwidth limit is up to how much bandwidth the broadband service provider offers.
  • FTTH project is a cost-effective cabling solution for present and future, since you have no need to worry about the upgrade for your cabling system.
  • FTTH project is designed with a lifespan of at least 30 years. Therefore, it is imperative that investments to the FTTH infrastructure are suitable for future needs.
Cable Options for FTTH

FTTH project is applied in many areas, such as indoor section, outdoor section. To fulfill the cabling requirements for different areas, different types of fiber optic cables are well developed.

Indoor cable: FTTH indoor cable is used inside a building or house to connect the FTTH user end equipment. Its fiber count typically is 1, 2 or 4 optical strands, commonly combined with two non-metal enhanced FRP/Metal/KFRP which can provide sufficient tensile strength and good resistance to lateral crushing to protect the fiber inside.

Drop cable: FTTH drop cable connects Network Access Point (NAP) to the subscriber premises. Drop cable contains only 1 or 2 fibers for the connecting circuitry and possibly additional fibers for backup or for other network architecture reasons. It is designed with attributes such as flexibility, less weight, smaller diameter, ease of fiber access and termination.

Distribution cable: Fiber distribution cable is ideal for applications requiring a single termination point with multiple fibers. It has a tight buffered design so it can be installed in intra-building backbone and inter-building campus locations without expensive transitions between cable types.

Conclusion

As a cost-effective cabling solution, it gains great popularity among people. So far, FTTH project has entered thousands of households. What’s more, it has been promoted as a national strategy. So, are you ready to embrace the benefits of FTTH project? FS.COM provides high quality fiber optic cables at low prices, such as single mode fiber and multimode fiber. Also, it provides custom service for fiber optic cabling.

Comparison Between Managed Switch And Unmanaged Switch

As an important part of the whole data link, switch has been a hot spot. According to Ethernet standard, it can be divided into 1G switch, 10G switch, 40G switch and 100G switch; according to port configuration, it can be classified as 8 port switch, 16 port switch, 24 port switch and 48 port switch; according to PoE technology, there are PoE switch and non-PoE switch. But, do you know there are managed switch and unmanaged switch? This article will make a comparison between them.

Overview of Managed Switch And Unmanaged Switch

In a networking, a switch receives a message from any device connected to it and then transmits the message to the target device. Within a LAN, the switch can handle and transmit data among multiple devices via a intelligent and efficient way. As for managed switch and unmanaged switch, the key difference between them is that managed switch can be configured and it can prioritize LAN traffic to make the most important data get through; while unmanaged switch is a “plug and play” device. It can’t be configured or analyze the data traffic.

managed switch VS. unmanaged switch

Comparison Between Managed Switch And Unmanaged Switch
  • Managed switch gives you better control over your LAN traffic and offers advanced features to control the traffic.
  • Managed switch has all the features of unmanaged switch and additionally has the ability to configure, manage, and monitor your LAN. So this helps you to monitor and decide who should have access to your network and gives you greater control over data flow through your network.
  • Unmanaged switch does not support any configuration interface and options. It is like plug and play device and you need to connect your computer or other network devices directly to the unmanaged switch. If there are no advanced applications needed, then unmanaged switches should be the best choice.
  • Managed switch uses protocols such as SNMP or Simple Network Management Protocol for monitoring the devices on the network, which helps in the exchange of management information between network devices.
  • Managed switch with Quality of Service (QoS) feature allows you to prioritize your network traffic by assigning a higher priority to the critical traffic. This helps to improve network performance and helps in better transmission of delay-sensitive data such as real-time voice.
  • Managed switch can be used to isolate traffic between different user groups. This segmentation and isolation of network traffic help to reduce unnecessary traffic. For instance, you can segregate traffic between your finance and marketing groups, so that critical finance information can flow without delay to the finance users and not get bogged down by marketing traffic. This allows better network performance and additional level of security.
Conclusion

When it comes to which one to choose, it is mostly about two things: budget and application. Managed switches are costlier than unmanaged switches. But managed switches definitely have more benefits and ensure improved, consistent network performance. Weighing the pros and cons of both the types of switches, each business needs to evaluate its network needs. If you just want to setup a network, unmanaged switches are good enough. If you need configuration options like like VLAN, QoS you will have to use a managed switch. FS.COM can provide quality managed switch, such as 8 port managed PoE/PoE+ switch, 24 port managed PoE/PoE+ switch. Also, they have cost-effective optical transceiver and optical cable.

Deploy Network in A New House

Network has changed our lifestyle and it has become an important part of our daily life. Therefore, home network deployment is a very common project. When it comes to the components required for the network deployment, many people would say Ethernet cable and router, without hesitation. However, when you start the project, you will find it is not that simple. To deploy network in a new house, future-proof cabling and cost-effective components are two essential elements. And this article will share some tips with you based on these two elements.

home network deployment

Run Conduit

We know that conduit can protect cable from damage, in addition, it will allow you to pull new wiring in the future. No matter what wires you require in the future, you can easily replace them. Remember to run more conduit than you think you need. Run conduit to every room. Typically, run it to whichever wall you’re thinking of placing your equipment. Also, run it to locations in hallways and on floors where you may place future routers/access points for wireless networking. You will find that Power over Ethernet is useful for this.

Cat6 Cable Is Fine

For Ethernet cable, Cat6 cable is fine for all current standards unless you have a giant mansion. Cat6 cable is a standardized twisted pair cable for Ethernet and it is backward compatible with the Cat3, Cat5 and Cat5e cable standards. In addition, Cat6 cable provides performance of up to 250 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX (Fast Ethernet), 1000BASE-T/1000BASE-TX (Gigabit Ethernet), and 10GBASE-T (10-Gigabit Ethernet). For transmission distance, Cat6 cable can reach 100 meters for slower network speeds (up to 1,000 Mbps) and higher network speeds over short transmission distance—it can achieve only 55 meters at the speed of 10 Gbps and 33 meters in high crosstalk conditions. You only need Cat6a cable if you plan to run cable at 10 Gbps and longer than 55 meters (180 ft). Also, remember to have “extra” cables which will save you enormous hassle and expense.

Dual Band Router Will Be Better

We know that wireless network utilizes either 2.4 GHz frequency band or 5 GHz frequency band. The 2.4 GHz wireless network covers a larger range than 5 GHz wireless network, but 5 GHz band can provides faster speed. In wireless home network, many older Wi-Fi devices do not support 5 GHz band. It is not difficult to find that 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz have their own advantages. As a result, dual band router will be better for your home network deployment.

Utilize PoE

If you want to set up multiple access points and IP cameras, PoE technology is a good option which can realize the power and data transmission over the same Ethernet cable at the same time. PoE devices utilize the original PoE standard, IEEE 802.3af, which provides up to 15.4W of DC power to each device. In addition to wireless access point and IP camera, there are some other PoE devices on the market, such as IP phone and PoE switch.

PoE technology

Conclusion

In fact, once you have decided to deploy network in your new house, there will be a lot of things that you have to think about, such as which type conduit to run, how long cable to buy, where to place the router, how many access points to set up, which kind PoE switch to buy, and so on. But there is another important thing that you must pay attention to, that’s where to buy what you need. FS.COM can provide high quality products at low price, such as 305 meters (1000 ft) is US$ 120.00, 8 port PoE switch is US$ 159.00.

Originally published at: http://www.fiber-optical-networking.com/deploy-network-in-a-new-house.html

Focus On Fiber Optic Link Loss

We know that, no natter what component you use, there must insertion loss in your fiber optic cabling. Therefore, in order to make your fiber optic cabling system perform at high level, calculating the amount of insertion loss before cable plant is necessary. This article will focus on fiber optic link loss.

Overview of Link Loss And Link Loss Budget

The link loss and link loss budget are measured in dB. Link loss is the total insertion loss of all optical components in an optical network. While link loss budget is the amount of loss that a cable plant should have. It is calculated by adding the average losses of all the components used in the cable plant to get the total estimated end-to-end loss. The link loss budget has two important functions: during the design stage to ensure the cabling being designed will work with the links intended to be used over it and; after installation, comparing the calculated link loss to test results to ensure the cable plant is installed properly.

How to Calculate Link Loss?

Usually, the loss of four parts need to be calculated: mated pair connector loss, fiber optic splicing loss, fiber optic cable loss and other loss.

link loss calculation

  • Mated Pair Connector—EIA/TIA 568 standard allows 0.75 max per connector

Connector or “connection” loss is the total loss of the mated pair connectors. It’s standard to assume a 0.3 dB loss for most ultras polished connectors. In order to measure the loss of the connectors, you must mate them with similar connectors, or you are likely to experience different losses. Also, a high quality connector is required when testing matted pairs.

  • Fiber Optic Splicing—EIA/TIA 568 max loss is 0.3 dB per splice

According to the Fiber Optic Association (FOA), multimode splices are commonly made using mechanical splices. Best construction practices dictate that even with multimode fiber fusion splicing is ideal. Both forms of splicing generally result in satisfactory results, however fusion splicing proves to be more reliable in adverse surroundings. Single mode fibers that have been fusion spliced will typically have less than 0.10 dB loss. A good average for a skilled installer is generally around 0.05 dB loss.

  • Fiber Optic Cable

EIA/TIA 568 spec for multimode fiber is 3.5 dB/ km at 850 nm and 1 .5 dB/km at 1310 nm. This specification translates into a loss of approximately 0.1 dB per 100 feet for 850 nm, 0.046. dB per 100 feet for 1300 nm. For example, 300 ft multimode fiber optic cable at 850 nm would approximately equal 0.3 dB loss. While for single mode fiber, the loss is 0.5 dB per km at 1310 nm, 0.4 dB per km for 1550 nm.

  • Other Loss—Passive Components and Margin

Don’t forget to count any other passive components you are using in your network. For example, if you are using splitters or filters, add the insertion loss for those components. In addition, it is recommended to add margin to your link loss calculation to adjust for any unforeseen losses. The amount may vary by designer or application but typically 2-3 dB will allow for sufficient headroom in you network link loss calculation.

Conclusion

The fiber optic link loss calculation and analysis are vital in cable plant. After the cable plant is installed, the calculated loss values are compared with the test results to ensure the link can operate properly. Besides, to reduce the link loss, high quality components are required. Quality is everything when gigabit and higher speeds are required. FS.COM provides high quality fiber optic connector, fiber optic cable and fiber optic transceiver at reasonable price. Also, they have test tools, such as light source and power meter.

A Closer Look at HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A)

Today, big data centers are upgraded from 10G to 40G or 100G, and some small homelabs migrate from 1G to 10G. For some small business data center, 24 port switch is enough. The switches produced by HP are popular with many data center designers for the high quality and low price. The HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A) is highly recommended in many forums. This article will guide you to have a closer look at HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A) switch.

Overview

The HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch (J9145A) is a 24 port switch that can be used to build high-performance switched network. It offers low latency for high-speed networking. For port configuration, it has twenty 10/100/1000 ports, four dual-personality ports, one RJ45 serial console port and four 10G ports. The HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch can provide the most flexible and easy-to-deploy uplinks in its class. It can be deployed at enterprise edge and remote branch offices, converged networks, and data center top of rack.

HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A)

Applications of HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch

This part will give a detailed introduction to the network ports on HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch and cabling solutions for the switch.

Ports on HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch
  • Twenty 10/100/1000 ports: All these ports have the “Auto MDIX” feature, which means you can use either straight-through or crossover twisted-pair cables to connect any network devices to the switch.
  • Four dual-personality ports: Each port can be used as either an RJ45 10/100/1000 port or as a mini-GBIC slot for use with mini-GBIC transceivers. By default, the RJ45 connectors are enabled. If a mini-GBIC is installed in a slot, it is enabled and the associated RJ45 connector is disabled and cannot be used. If the mini-GBIC is removed, the associated RJ45 port is automatically re-enabled.
  • Four 10G ports: These ports provide connectivity for 10G speed though either copper or fiber optic media.
Cabling Solution

Since HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch has 10/100/1000 ports, it can be used for 1G to 1G connection. As shown in the following figure, two 1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver modules are respectively plugged into 1G ports on two HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switches. Then these two 1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver modules are connected via a LC multimode fiber optic cable.

HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A) for 1G connection

Designed with 10G ports, HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch can realize 10G to 10G connection just like the above 1G connection. Just replace the 1000BASE-SX SFP transceiver module with 10GBASE-SR SFP+ transceiver. Besides, you can also accomplish 10G to 10 connection by using a 10G SFP+ to SFP+ DAC twinax cable. The following figure shows the cabling solution for you.

HP ProCurve 2910al-24G Switch (J9145A) for 10G connection

Conclusion

The HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch (J9145A) is a high-performance Gigabit Ethernet switch. It is a good selection for small business network deployment. If you need compatible fiber optic transceiver and fiber optic cable for HP ProCurve 2910al-24G switch, you can have a look at FS.COM. The following table shows some compatible optical components.

FS Compatible Optical Components

Originally published at: http://www.fiber-optical-networking.com/a-closer-look-at-hp-procurve-2910al-24g-switch-j9145a.html

Set Up 10G Home Network

Nowadays, nobody would deny the importance of the network. It has become an inseparable part of our daily life. As it developed, people’s demand for bandwidth is increasing. And 10G network is widely applied in small and middle sized business. In addition, 10G home network can be also commonly found. This article will share some tips to set up 10G home network.

Consideration Before Setting Up 10G Home Network

Why do you need 10G network? It is not difficult to find that almost everything nowadays rely on a fast and reliable network, which leads to tremendous traffic and applications running on the network. It is necessary to upgrade your home network to support the growing of your business. Setting up 10G home network avoids network congestion at busy times while improves your productivity.

What do you want from 10G home network? Before you start to set up the network, better planning is needed. You should ask yourself a few questions, such as how many computers, printers and other peripherals will connect to your network? How much wireless coverage will you need at your location? What type of mobile devices will need access to your network?

Needs for 10G Home Network
10G Switch

To build a 10G home network, several components are required: 10G core switch, access switch with 10G uplink, and 10G network interface cards for servers and storage devices. The past few years had witness the price dropping of 10G network switch. For example, the cost of Ubiquiti Unifi and Edgeswitch switch are only $200. You can also find many 10G switch under $550, such as FS.COM 10G network switch S3800-48T4S only costs $480 by offering 48 100/1000Base-T and 4 10GE SFP+ ports.

10G switch
10G Cabling

There are two cabling ways for 10G home network—10GBASE-T and 10G SFP+.

If you choose 10GBASE-T, then upgrading the existing 1G network to 10G can be simple. If 10G switch is designed with RJ45 ports, you can use the same RJ45 network cable to connect the 10G switch with your server, storage and some other switches. The only difference is to use Cat6a network cable instead of Cat5e and Cat6 cable, because Cat6a can support 10G data rate over 100 meters; or you can choose SFP+ 10GBASE-T module with 2.5W power consumption and a maximum distance of 30 meters.

10G cabling

For 10G network switch that supports 10G SFP+, you can use it with devices that come with 10G SFP+ ports, too. For server or storage devices with 10G SFP+ port, the most cost efficient way to connect them with 10G network switch is to use 10G DAC cable (direct attach cable). It is basically copper cable with SFP+ connector on both sides. But this cabling way is only suitable for short connectivity. For data link over 100 meters, a pair of SFP+ modules and the matching fiber optic cable are needed. Depending on the length required in home network, you can use 10G optics such as 10GBASE SR SFP module and multimode fiber to reach 300 meters.

Conclusion

For home network set up, 10G is a trend. But before you migrate your network to 10G, you still have to think about what you want or what you need. After that, the choice for components and cabling procedure can be easy. FS.COM provides comprehensive 10G solutions: all the components mentioned to build a 10G home network are available at FS.COM, including 10G switches, network cables, 10G SFP+ transceivers, fiber patch cables and DAC cables.