Focus On FTTH Cabling Solution

Fiber optic cable has been widely used in telecom industry for its fast transmission speed. As people’s demand for bandwidth is increasing, optical fiber cable is not only used in enterprise network, but also applied to home network deployment. And FTTH (Fiber to the home) project is a typical example. This article will focus on FTTH cabling solution.

Overview of FTTH

FTTH refers to the installation and use of fiber optic cable all the way to individual buildings such as single family units (SFUs), multidwelling units (MDUs), providing high-speed broadband service. Take FTTH project in residential area for example, usually, the broadband service provider will set a distribution point near or inside a building. And fiber optic cables are deployed in this building to connect every required house to this fiber distribution point, thus providing broadband services to end users.

FTTH cabling solution

Advantages of FTTH

FTTH is an idea cabling solution for home network users who need high and reliable bandwidth for some applications, such as video chats and online conversation. In addition to this, is there any other advantage of FTTH?

  • FTTH is a passive network project which needs no active components, thus the cost of network installation and maintenance is not very high.
  • Fiber optic cable is light, so the installation process does not need much labor..
  • Fiber optic cable has high stability, and it will not be easily corroded by lightning or rain, or cause leakage.
  • Fiber optic cable can provide unlimited bandwidth. The development of technology leads to further expansion of people’s demand for bandwidth. For Ethernet cable, different categories have their own data rate limits and transmission distance limits. But for optical fiber cable, the bandwidth limit is up to how much bandwidth the broadband service provider offers.
  • FTTH project is a cost-effective cabling solution for present and future, since you have no need to worry about the upgrade for your cabling system.
  • FTTH project is designed with a lifespan of at least 30 years. Therefore, it is imperative that investments to the FTTH infrastructure are suitable for future needs.
Cable Options for FTTH

FTTH project is applied in many areas, such as indoor section, outdoor section. To fulfill the cabling requirements for different areas, different types of fiber optic cables are well developed.

Indoor cable: FTTH indoor cable is used inside a building or house to connect the FTTH user end equipment. Its fiber count typically is 1, 2 or 4 optical strands, commonly combined with two non-metal enhanced FRP/Metal/KFRP which can provide sufficient tensile strength and good resistance to lateral crushing to protect the fiber inside.

Drop cable: FTTH drop cable connects Network Access Point (NAP) to the subscriber premises. Drop cable contains only 1 or 2 fibers for the connecting circuitry and possibly additional fibers for backup or for other network architecture reasons. It is designed with attributes such as flexibility, less weight, smaller diameter, ease of fiber access and termination.

Distribution cable: Fiber distribution cable is ideal for applications requiring a single termination point with multiple fibers. It has a tight buffered design so it can be installed in intra-building backbone and inter-building campus locations without expensive transitions between cable types.

Conclusion

As a cost-effective cabling solution, it gains great popularity among people. So far, FTTH project has entered thousands of households. What’s more, it has been promoted as a national strategy. So, are you ready to embrace the benefits of FTTH project? FS.COM provides high quality fiber optic cables at low prices, such as single mode fiber and multimode fiber. Also, it provides custom service for fiber optic cabling.

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Focus On Fiber Optic Link Loss

We know that, no natter what component you use, there must insertion loss in your fiber optic cabling. Therefore, in order to make your fiber optic cabling system perform at high level, calculating the amount of insertion loss before cable plant is necessary. This article will focus on fiber optic link loss.

Overview of Link Loss And Link Loss Budget

The link loss and link loss budget are measured in dB. Link loss is the total insertion loss of all optical components in an optical network. While link loss budget is the amount of loss that a cable plant should have. It is calculated by adding the average losses of all the components used in the cable plant to get the total estimated end-to-end loss. The link loss budget has two important functions: during the design stage to ensure the cabling being designed will work with the links intended to be used over it and; after installation, comparing the calculated link loss to test results to ensure the cable plant is installed properly.

How to Calculate Link Loss?

Usually, the loss of four parts need to be calculated: mated pair connector loss, fiber optic splicing loss, fiber optic cable loss and other loss.

link loss calculation

  • Mated Pair Connector—EIA/TIA 568 standard allows 0.75 max per connector

Connector or “connection” loss is the total loss of the mated pair connectors. It’s standard to assume a 0.3 dB loss for most ultras polished connectors. In order to measure the loss of the connectors, you must mate them with similar connectors, or you are likely to experience different losses. Also, a high quality connector is required when testing matted pairs.

  • Fiber Optic Splicing—EIA/TIA 568 max loss is 0.3 dB per splice

According to the Fiber Optic Association (FOA), multimode splices are commonly made using mechanical splices. Best construction practices dictate that even with multimode fiber fusion splicing is ideal. Both forms of splicing generally result in satisfactory results, however fusion splicing proves to be more reliable in adverse surroundings. Single mode fibers that have been fusion spliced will typically have less than 0.10 dB loss. A good average for a skilled installer is generally around 0.05 dB loss.

  • Fiber Optic Cable

EIA/TIA 568 spec for multimode fiber is 3.5 dB/ km at 850 nm and 1 .5 dB/km at 1310 nm. This specification translates into a loss of approximately 0.1 dB per 100 feet for 850 nm, 0.046. dB per 100 feet for 1300 nm. For example, 300 ft multimode fiber optic cable at 850 nm would approximately equal 0.3 dB loss. While for single mode fiber, the loss is 0.5 dB per km at 1310 nm, 0.4 dB per km for 1550 nm.

  • Other Loss—Passive Components and Margin

Don’t forget to count any other passive components you are using in your network. For example, if you are using splitters or filters, add the insertion loss for those components. In addition, it is recommended to add margin to your link loss calculation to adjust for any unforeseen losses. The amount may vary by designer or application but typically 2-3 dB will allow for sufficient headroom in you network link loss calculation.

Conclusion

The fiber optic link loss calculation and analysis are vital in cable plant. After the cable plant is installed, the calculated loss values are compared with the test results to ensure the link can operate properly. Besides, to reduce the link loss, high quality components are required. Quality is everything when gigabit and higher speeds are required. FS.COM provides high quality fiber optic connector, fiber optic cable and fiber optic transceiver at reasonable price. Also, they have test tools, such as light source and power meter.

10Gb Switches Under $550

Though many enterprise networks and big data centers have been upgraded to 40G or 100G Ethernet network, 10G Ethernet network still has its place in small homelab deployment. As an important component, 10Gb switch has been a hot topic among many engineers. If you are familiar with fiber optic networking, you must know the following brands: MikroTik, Dell, Ubiquiti and so on. They all provide 10G switches. And this article want to share some 10Gb switches under $550 with you.

MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+IN

It belongs to MikroTik Cloud Router Switch series and it is powered by RouterOS. It is designed with 24 1GbE ports and 2 10G SFP+ ports. The price of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+IN on ebay is about $260. The datasheet of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+IN is shown as below:

the datasheet of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+IN
MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+RM

The CRS226-24G-2S+RM is available in a 1U rackmount case. It is a fully functional Layer 3 switch powered by RouterOS. It has 24 Gigabit ports and 2 SFP+ cages for 10G connectivity (first SFP port supports 1.25G/10G modules, second port only 10G modules). The price of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+RM on ebay is about $280. The datasheet of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+RM is shown as below:

the data sheet of MikroTik CRS226-24G-2S+RM
MikroTik CRS210-8G-2S+IN

MikroTik CRS210-8G-2S+IN is a “small size low cost” switch. It comes with 8 Gigabit Ethernet ports and 2 SFP+ cages for 10G connectivity (first port supports 1.25G/10G modules, second port only 10G modules). The price of MikroTik CRS210-8G-2S+IN on ebay is about $187. The datasheet of MikroTik CRS210-8G-2S+IN is shown as below:

the datasheet of MikroTik CRS210-8G-2S+IN
Dell N2024

Dell Networking N2000 is a series of energy-efficient and cost-effective 1GbE and 10GbE switches designed for modernizing and scaling network infrastructure. N2000 switches utilize a comprehensive enterprise-class Layer 2+ feature set, deliver consistent, simplified management and offer high-availability device and network design. Dell N2024 is designed with 24 1GbE ports and 2 10G SFP+ ports. The price of it on ebay is about $400. The datasheet of Dell N2024 is shown as below:

the datasheet of Dell N2024
Ubiquiti ES-48-Lite EdgeSwitch

The Ubiquiti EdgeSwitch Lite simultaneously processes traffic on all ports at line rate without any packet loss. It can provide total non-blocking throughput up to 70 Gbps for the 48-port model. Ubiquiti ES-48-Lite EdgeSwitch has 48 Gigabit RJ-45 ports, 2 SFP ports and 2 10G SFP+ ports. The price of it on Amazon is about $420. The datasheet of Ubiquiti ES-48-Lite EdgeSwitch is shown as below:

the datasheet of Ubiquiti ES-48-Lite EdgeSwitch
TP-Link T1700G-28TQ

TP-Link T1700G-28TQ is designed to build a network that is highly accessible, scalable, and robust. It supports L2 and L2+ features. The switch is equipped with 24 10/100/100Mbps RJ-45 ports and 4 dedicated 10G SFP+ slots. The price of TP-Link T1700G-28TQ is about $400. The datasheet of TP-Link T1700G-28TQ is shown as below:

the datasheet of TP-Link T1700G-28TQ
D-Link DGS-1510-28X

D-Link DGS-1510-28X is a 1U rackmount switch that can be either mounted using ears or used in desktop mode. The front of the switch has the majority of the unit’s functionality present. It has 24 1GbE ports and 4 10G SFP+ ports. The price of D-Link DGS-1510-28X is about $520 on Amazon. The datasheet of it is shown as below:

the datasheet of D-Link DGS-1510-28X
D-Link DGS-1510-20

D-Link DGS-1510-20 has 16 1G ports, 2 SFP ports and 2 10G SFP+ ports. It can provide a reliable, scalable, and modular interconnection between core switch and edge switch with rich capabilities and simplified flexibility. The price of D-Link DGS-1510-20 is about $319 on Amazon. The datasheet of D-Link DGS-1510-20is shown as below:

the datasheet of D-Link DGS-1510-20
Conclusion

10Gb switch is still popular with small data center managers. I hope this article can help you choose a cost-effective 10Gb switch. FS.COM can provide quality components for fiber optic cabling, such as SFP transceiver, fiber optic cable, cable management accessory and so on.

Applications of MTP Conversion Cable

We know that MTP/MPO cable is a great option for nowadays data center fiber optic cabling which needs higher and higher cabling density and transmission capability. In most cases, 12-fiber MTP cable is used to realize 10G to 40G or 40G to 40G connection. However, there is a problem in this cabling system—only eight fibers of the 12-fiber MTP cable are used (four fibers for transmitting and four fibers for receiving), leaving the middle four fibers unused. That means using 12-fiber MTP cable cannot achieve 100% fiber utilization. To solve this problem, MTP conversion cable is available on the market. And this article is going to introduce applications of MTP conversion cable in data center.

1×3 MTP Conversion Cable

This type of MTP conversion cable is usually used for 40G to 120G connection. It is terminated with one 24-fiber MTP connector on one end and three 8-fiber MTP connectors on the other end. As shown in the following figure, a 120G CXP transceiver is plugged into the 100G CFP interface on the switch on the one side, while three 40G QSFP+ transceivers are plugged into the 40G QSFP+ interfaces on the switch on the other side. Then the 1×3 MTP conversion cable connects the 120G CXP transceiver with the three 40G QSFP+ transceivers—the 24-fiber MTP connector terminated at the cable is directly plugged into the CXP transceiver, while the three 8-fiber MTP connectors are plugged into the three QSFP+ transceivers. In this way, 40G to 100G migration can be realized smoothly.

40G to 120G connection with 1x3 MTP conversion cable

2×3 MTP Conversion Cable

This type of MTP conversion cable can be used for 10G to 40G or 40G to 40G connection. It is structured with two 12-fiber MTP connectors on one end and three 8-fiber MTP connectors on the other end. For 10G to 40G connection, MTP fiber optic cassette is also needed. As shown in the following figure, three 40G QSFP+ transceivers are plugged into the 40G QSFP+ interface on the switch on the one side, while twelve 10G SFP+ transceivers are plugged into the 10G SFP+ interfaces on the switch on the other side. Then the three 8-fiber MTP connectors terminated at 2×3 MTP conversion cable are directly plugged into the three 40G QSFP+ transceivers, while the two 12-fiber MTP connectors are plugged into the MTP 12 fiber adapters mounted at the rear of the MTP fiber optic cassette. With one end of twelve duplex LC patch cables plugged into the LC adapters on the front side of the cassette and the other end of the twelve cables plugged into twelve 10G SFP+ transceiver, the 10G to 40G connection is accomplished.

10G to 40G connection with 2x3 MTP conversion cable

For 40G to 40G connection, we can use a MTP adapter panel. From the figure below, we can find that the connections on both sides are symmetrical. The three 8-fiber MTP connectors at the end of 2×3 MTP conversion cable are directly plugged into the three 40G QSFP+ transceivers, then into 40G QSFP+ interfaces on the switch. And the two 12-fiber MTP connectors of both two MTP conversion cables are plugged into MTP 12 fiber adapters on the MTP adapter panel.

40G to 40G connection with 2x3 MTP conversion cable

Conclusion

It is not difficult to find that the three cabling solutions above make use of all the fibers. Therefore, data center managers can gain great value to utilize MTP conversion cable which can achieve 100% fiber utilization as well as meet the demand for high density cabling. FS.COM provides high quality 1×2, 1×3 and 2×3 MTP conversion cable at low price.